czyz.xyzczyz.xyzmzyzcczyz.xyz/blog/hello-world.htmlHello, World!Welcome to my first blog post! To start, I’d like to set some intentions and state my plans for this space.2021-07-23T00:00:00Zczyz.xyz/blog/setup-ssh-key-authentication.htmlSetting Up SSH Key-Based AuthenticationBy default, SSH authentication is done with passwords, but it is often recommended to use key-based authentication instead. Note that, with a good encryption algorithm and password, random attacks are virtually guaranteed to fail anyway—that said, it may still be worth switching depending on your needs.2021-09-27T00:00:00Zczyz.xyz/blog/posix-shell-reference.htmlPOSIX Shell ReferenceBash is the most common shell on Linux systems, but the POSIX shell sh is more portable. Unfortunately, there are far less resources for using it. This reference guide will show the fundamentals of the language.2021-11-23T00:00:00Zczyz.xyz/notes/backus-naur-form.htmlBackus-Naur FormDefining valid identifiers in a given language can be difficult when using regular expressions. Some constructs, like nested brackets, cannot be defined this way.czyz.xyz/notes/boolean-logic.htmlBoolean LogicBoolean variables can only take the values true and false (or 1 and 0).czyz.xyz/notes/calculating-g.htmlFinding Acceleration due to Gravityczyz.xyz/notes/capacitors.htmlCapacitorsA capacitor is an electrical component which stores charge. It is made up of two conducting parallel plates with a short gap between them.czyz.xyz/notes/carnot-cycle.htmlThe Carnot CycleNicolas Carnot was a French engineer who theorised the maximum efficiency of heat engines. This was used to formalize the second law of thermodynamics and define the concept of entropy.czyz.xyz/notes/centre-of-mass.htmlFinding Centre of Massczyz.xyz/notes/client-server-model.htmlThe Client-Server ModelIn the client-server model, a client sends a request to a server, which responds with the requested data or an otherwise suitable message. An example of this is a web browser (the client) sending a request to a web server for a web page. Usually, a server will fulfil a specific role; e.g., web servers, file servers, email servers, print servers, DHCP servers, proxy servers.czyz.xyz/notes/conditional-probability.htmlConditional ProbabilityThe probability of an event AA can depend on the outcome of a previous event BB. This can be represented using conditional probability P(B|A)\mathrm{P}(B|A).czyz.xyz/notes/decay.htmlRadioactive DecayThe decay of nuclei is a random process.czyz.xyz/notes/double-slit.htmlYoung’s Double-Slit ExperimentFringe spacing, w=λDs \text{Fringe spacing, } w = \frac{\lambda D}{s} czyz.xyz/notes/electricity.htmlElectricitysome particles have chargeczyz.xyz/notes/finding-young-modulus.htmlYoung’s Modulus of a Wirearea of a circle=πr2 \text{area of a circle} = \pi r^2 czyz.xyz/notes/fluorescent-tubes.htmlFluorescent Tubesczyz.xyz/notes/geiger-muller-tube-research.htmlGeiger-Müller TubeEvery time the tube absorbs radiation, it transmits an electrical pulse to a counting machine. This makes the machine ‘click’ or display a count rate. The more clicks, the higher the count rate and the more radiation is absorbed.czyz.xyz/notes/gravitational-and-electric-fields.htmlGravitational and Electric FieldsForce fields cause objects/particles to interact.czyz.xyz/notes/internal-resistance-and-emf.htmlInternal Resistance and Electromotive ForceV=ϵ−Ir V = \epsilon - Ir czyz.xyz/notes/inverse-square.htmlNuclear 3The uncertainty of a count is ±n\pm \sqrt{n} where nn is the number of countsczyz.xyz/notes/ip-addresses.htmlIP AddressesAn IP address is a unique numerical address used to identify a host or network node trying to communicate over IP on a network (including the internet).czyz.xyz/notes/kinetic-theory.htmlMolecular Kinetic TheoryThe molecular kinetic theory of gases attempts to explain macroscopic properties via microscopic particle behaviour.czyz.xyz/notes/logarithms.htmlLogarithmsAll three statements express the same idea (in exponent, logarithm, and root form)czyz.xyz/notes/magnetic-fields.htmlMagnetic FieldsWhen a wire is carrying a current, a magnetic field is inducedczyz.xyz/notes/normal-distributions.htmlNormal DistributionsFor a normally distributed variable:czyz.xyz/notes/nuclear-physics-2.htmlNuclear PhysicsThe belt of stability: if a nucleus exists outside of this belt, it is unstable and will spontaneously decay such that it becomes part of the belt. Energy is let out when moving closer to the belt; energy is put in when moving away from it.czyz.xyz/notes/nuclear-physics.htmlNuclear PhysicsJ.J. Thomson suggested the atom was a uniformly positively-charged sphere with small electrons uniformly distributed throughout. This was called the ‘plum-pudding model’.czyz.xyz/notes/nuclear-research.htmlNuclear ResearchAlexander Litvinenko was a Russian critic who spoke about corruption in his former country and died of radiation poisoning in November 2006. It is suspected that he was assassinated by Andrey Lugovoy on behalf of the Russian state.czyz.xyz/notes/optics.htmlOpticsConverging lenses bring light rays together.czyz.xyz/notes/quantum-phenomena.htmlQuantum PhenomenaConduction electrons move freely inside a metal, colliding with positive ions in the metal and with each other. Heinrich Hertz found that sparks produced in a spark gap detector when radio waves are transmitted were stronger when UV radiation was directed at the spark gap. The photoelectric effect is when electrons are emitted from a metal’s surface when EM radiation above a certain frequency is directed at it.czyz.xyz/notes/radiation.htmlRadiationIonising radiation comes in the form of X-rays, protons, neutrons, alpha, beta, and gamma rays. It affects living tissues because:czyz.xyz/notes/regex.htmlRegular ExpressionsRegular expressions are a tool to work with text patterns. They can describe any regular language.czyz.xyz/notes/regular-languages.htmlRegular LanguagesA finite state system accepts a string if there is a path from the start state to an accept stateczyz.xyz/notes/reverse-polish-notation.htmlReverse-Polish NotationReverse-Polish notation, also known as postfix notation,, is used because it is suited for computational evaluationczyz.xyz/notes/sets.htmlSetsA set is an unordered collection of values in which each value occurs no more than once.czyz.xyz/notes/simple-harmonic-motion.htmlSimple Harmonic MotionSimple harmonic motion occurs when an object oscillates around a fixed point. If the object moves away from the equilibrium position, a force will be exerted in the opposite direction to bring it back to equilibrium. Hence, as a condition for simple harmonic motion, the objects acceleration must be directly proportional to its displacement in the opposite direction.czyz.xyz/notes/specific-heat-capacity-and-latent-heat.htmlSpecific Heat Capacity and Specific Latent HeatThe specific heat capacity cc is the energy QQ needed to raise a mass mm of 1kg\SI{1}{\kg} by a temperature θ\theta of 1K\SI{1}{\kelvin}.czyz.xyz/notes/stars.htmlStarsThe way stars absorb and emit radiation is similar to that of a black body and thus produces a continuous spectrum similar to this:czyz.xyz/notes/stationary-wave-experiments.htmlStationary Wave Experimentsμ=mL \mu = \frac{m}{L} czyz.xyz/notes/thermal-physics.htmlThermal PhysicsSpecific latent heat can be of fusion or vaporisationczyz.xyz/notes/thermodynamics.htmlThermodynamicsInternal energy of a gas is the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of the molecules.czyz.xyz/notes/turing-machines.htmlTuring MachinesAlan Turing was interested in computability and whether every mathematical task was computable.czyz.xyz/notes/vectors.htmlVectorsCartesian coordinates axes in three dimensions usually use the variables xx, yy, and zz, all three being perpendicular to each other.czyz.xyz/notes/waves-and-vibrations.htmlWaves and VibrationsWaves passing through a substance (known as mechanical waves) are just vibrations passing through that substance, causing the particles to vibrate, which in turn causes nearby particles to vibrate as well.czyz.xyz/notes/wire-resistivity.htmlResistivity of a WireArea of a circle=πr2 \text{Area of a circle} = \pi r^2 czyz.xyz/notes/algebraic-properties.htmlAlgebraic Propertiesx×(y+z)=x×y+x×z x \times (y + z) = x \times y + x \times z czyz.xyz/notes/counting.htmlCountingCounting is the process of determining the number of elements in a finite set.czyz.xyz/notes/discrete-probability.htmlDiscrete ProbabilityAs logic only deals with true or false statements, probability theories are needed to reason about situations with uncertainty.czyz.xyz/notes/graphs.htmlGraph TheoryA finite graph is an ordered pair of finite sets; the finite set of vertices related by edges.czyz.xyz/notes/logic.htmlLogicThere are 22n2^{2^n} logically-distinct propositions over nn variables.czyz.xyz/projects/codex.htmlCodexA Crystal library for writing text-based games.czyz.xyz/projects/forager.htmlForagerAn RSS feed reader for the desktop.czyz.xyz/projects/dosh.htmldoshA terminal dashboard for tracking cryptocurrency prices.czyz.xyz/projects/moyet.htmlMoyetA Gemini web server.czyz.xyz/projects/silkmason.htmlSilkMasonA simple static site generator based on pandoc.